Association between ascites and primary hyperfibrinolysis: A cohort study in 210 dogs

Zoia A1, Drigo M2, Simioni P3, Caldin M4, Piek CJ5
Association between ascites and primary hyperfibrinolysis: A cohort study in 210 dogs
Vet J. 2017 May;223:12-20. doi: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2017.03.008. Epub 2017 Mar 31.

Coagulation profiles were determined in 70 dogs with ascites, 70 healthy control dogs and 70 sick control dogs without ascites. Dogs with ascites were divided into four sub-groups based on the pathophysiology of fluid formation. Coagulation profile, serum C-reactive protein and frequency of discordant plasma fibrin-fibrinogen degradation products and D-dimer assay results, suggesting primary hyperfibrinolysis, were compared between groups. Within the ascites group, 10 samples of ascitic fluid were transudates due to decreased osmotic pressure, 18 were transudates due to increased hydrostatic pressure, 13 were exudates and 29 were haemorrhagic. Plasma fibrinogen concentrations were significantly lower in dogs with ascites compared to sick dogs without ascites. Activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, plasma concentrations of fibrin-fibrinogen degradation products and D-dimers, and frequency of primary hyperfibrinolysis, were significantly higher for dogs with ascites compared to both control groups. There was no significant difference in platelet count between groups. The frequency of primary hyperfibrinolysis was highest in dogs with transudative ascites due to increased hydrostatic pressure. Serum C-reactive protein was significantly higher in dogs with ascites compared to both control groups, and significantly and positively correlated with plasma D-dimers. In conclusion, dogs with ascites have an increased frequency of primary hyperfibrinolysis, especially with ascites secondary to increased hydrostatic pressure. The increased inflammation present in these dogs may have activated haemostasis in some cases, explaining the higher plasma D-dimers.

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