Fibrinolysis in Dogs with Intracavitary Effusion: A Review
Andrea Zoia, Michele Drigo, Marco Caldin, Paolo Simioni and Christine J. Piek
Physiologic fibrinolysis is a localized process in which stable fibrin strands are broken down by plasmin in response to thrombosis. Plasmin activation can also take place separately from
the coagulation process, resulting in pathologic fibrinolysis. When plasmin activation exceeds the neutralizing capacity of plasmin inhibitors, severe bleeding can potentially take place. Although the
processes which regulate coagulation and fibrinolysis in the blood are well known, it is less clear as to what extent the same processes take place in the body cavities and whether they influence
systemic hemostasis. The results of the studies herein cited demonstrate that coagulation followed by fibrinogenolytic/fibrinolytic activity takes place in all kinds of canine ascitic and pleural fluids.
Moreover, systemic clotting abnormalities suggesting primary fibrinolysis/primary hyperfibrinolysis (i.e., elevated plasma fibrin/fibrinogen degradation products [FDPs] and normal D-dimer concentrations with fibrinogen concentrations 100 mg/dL or above this cut-off, respectively) occur in dogs with intracavitary effusion. Enhanced fibrinolytic activity in dogs with intracavitary effusion can also be detected using rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM), although the degree of agreement between ROTEM and FDPs, D-dimer and fibrinogen concentrations is poor. Finally, contrary to the thrombotic events commonly documented in some humans and cats with cardiac diseases, bleeding tendencies due to primary.
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