De Lucia M, Bardagi M, Fabbri E, Ferreira D, Ferrer L, Scarampella F, Zanna G, Fondati A.
Rifampicin treatment of canine pyoderma due to multidrug-resistant meticillin-resistant staphylococci: a retrospective study of 32 cases
Vet Dermatol. 2016 Dec 26. doi: 10.1111/vde.12404
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BACKGROUND: Rifampicin has received increased interest in veterinary dermatology because of its activity against multidrug-resistant meticillin-resistant staphylococci (MRS). There is limited knowledge about the efficacy and safety of rifampicin in dogs.
HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVE: To provide information on response to treatment and adverse effects in dogs treated with rifampicin for multidrug-resistant MRS pyoderma.
ANIMALS: Thirty two dogs treated with rifampicin for rifampicin-susceptible multidrug-resistant MRS pyoderma.
METHODS: Retrospective review of medical records, including alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) serum activity levels and total bilirubin concentrations, obtained before and throughout the treatment, was performed.
RESULTS: Oral rifampicin as sole systemic antimicrobial therapy (median dose 5 mg/kg twice daily) was effective in 71.88% of cases. Topical antimicrobials were used in most cases. Median duration of rifampicin treatment was five weeks for superficial pyoderma and four weeks for deep pyoderma. Gastrointestinal signs were reported in 15% of treated dogs. Statistically significant increases of ALT (P = 0.045) and ALP (P = 0.0002) values after 3-4 weeks of treatment was observed. The median increase was equal to 0.3 and ×1.5 the upper limit of the reference ranges for ALT and ALP, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS/CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Oral rifampicin combined with topical antimicrobials can be considered an effective therapeutic option for canine superficial and deep pyoderma caused by rifampicin-susceptible multidrug-resistant MRS. Liver enzyme induction might be the most important cause of ALT and ALP increase associated with rifampicin therapy in dogs.